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    Lepomis macrochirus
    Bluegill
    Credit: Joseph Tomelleri

    Taxonomic Hierarchy

    Life
    Animalia
    Chordata
    Actinopterygii
    Perciformes
    Centrarchidae (Sunfishes)
    Lepomis
    Lepomis macrochirus (Bluegill)

    Description

    All text below is derived from a January 2013 copy of Dr. Timothy Bonner's website at Texas State University. That content was derived primarily from published literature. We are aware of some conflicts with the museum record and the content below will evolve as the new, expanded UT and Texas State Fishes of Texas project team members are able to update it. We invite collaborations to improve and expand the species account content. Please contact us if you wish to help, or if you discover flaws in our species account content that you can address.

    Type Locality:

    “Ohio River” (Rafinesque 1819).

     

    Etymology/Derivation of Scientific Name:

    Lepomis, Greek, meaning “scaled gill cover”; macrochirus, Greek, meaning “large hand”, perhaps in reference to the body shape (Pflieger 1975).

     

    Synonymy:

    Lepomis macrochira: Rafinesque 1819:420.

    Ichthelis incisor: Nelson 1876:37.

    Lepiopomus macrochirus: Jordan 1878.

    Lepomis macrochirus: Forbes 1884:68.

    Lepomis pallidus: Forbes 1884:67; Large 1903:25; Forbes and Richardson 1908:257-259.

     

    Characters

    Maximum size: 405 mm TL (Lee 1980).

     

    Life colors: Dark spot on posterior part of dorsal fin; opercle not margined with scarlet (Hubbs et al 1991). Sides of head and chin bluish; back olivaceous to brown; sides bluish green shading ventrally to brownish orange or pinkish, with 5-9 distinct vertical bars; breast yellowish; abdomen yellowish white; fins olivaceous; opercular flap mostly black, sometimes with an iridescent blue anterior edge. Breast of breeding males copperish orange; head and body with greenish or bluish metallic overtones (Sublette et al. 1990).

     

    Counts: 3 anal fin spines; 10-12 anal fin rays; fewer than 55 lateral line scales; 6-13 dorsal fin spines; 6 or 7 branchiostegals (Hubbs et al. 1991); 11-12 dorsal rays; 12-13 pectoral rays (Ross 2001).

     

    Body shape: Deep bodied, laterally compressed (Ross 2001); body depth usually contained two to two and one-half times in standard length (Hubbs et al 1991).

     

    Mouth position: Terminal, oblique (Sublette et al. 1990).

     

    External morphology: Opercle flexible; gill rakers reaching at least to base of second below when depressed; pectoral fins long and pointed, upper pectoral fin rays much longer than lower; pectoral fin contained 3.5 or fewer times in SL; supramaxilla absent or shorter than breadth of maxilla; maxillary width less than suborbital; lateral line present (arched upward anteriorly; Ross 2001); scales ctenoid (Hubbs et al.1991). Sexes may be differentiated by the more conspicuous genital papilla of the female (McComish 1968).

     

    Internal morphology: Intestine well differentiated; pyloric caeca present; silvery peritoneum (Goldstein and Simon 1999). Palantine teeth are usually absent (Hubbs et al. 1991; Ross 2001).

     

    Distribution (Native and Introduced)

    U.S. distribution: Occurs naturally in the United States east of the Rocky Mountains (Hubbs et al. 1991). Originally restricted to western and central North America where it ranged from coastal Virginia to Florida, west to Texas and northern Mexico, and north from western Minnesota to western New York; widely transplanted elsewhere in North America (Lee 1980).

     

    Texas distribution: Statewide (Hubbs et al. 1991). Warren et al. (2000) listed the following drainage units for distribution of Lepomis macrochirus in the state: Red River (from the mouth upstream to and including the Kiamichi River), Sabine Lake (including minor coastal drainages west to Galveston Bay), Galveston Bay (including minor coastal drainages west to mouth of Brazos River), Brazos River, Colorado River, San Antonio Bay (including minor coastal drainages west of mouth of Colorado River to mouth of Nueces River), Nueces River.

     

    Abundance/Conservation status (Federal, State, NGO)

    Populations in the southern Unites States are currently secure (Warren et al. 2000).

     

    Habitat Associations

    Macrohabitat: Lakes, ponds, rivers, and creeks (Lee 1980). In Brazos River, Texas, species rarely found in river channels, but abundant in oxbow lakes (Zeug et al 2005). One of the most abundant species collected from five stations on the mainstem of Sister Grove Creek (Trinity River basin), Texas (Matthews et al. 1996). 

     

    Mesohabitat: Inhabits shallow, warm, slow-flowing waters, often with abundant aquatic vegetation (Lee 1980). Occurring primarily in pools and backwaters, L. microchirus was sparsely but widely distributed throughout the Little River drainage (Brazos River, Texas), except that it was absent in all collections from the Blackland Prairie (Rose and Echelle 1981). In Lake Texoma (Texas and Oklahoma), this species was abundant along shores in clearer parts of lake; common in the tributaries and tail waters (Riggs and Bonn 1959). Younger fish utilize areas with cover while older fish seek more open water, generally resulting in lack of competition for food between size classes (Bianchi 1984; Mittelback 1984). Peterson and Ross (1991) note occurrence of species in waters with salinities of up to 10 ppt.

     

    Biology

    Spawning season: In Texas, peak gonadal development was reached around mid-April, spawning continued well into September (Schloemer 1947); March – September spawning reported by Estes (1949). Breder and Rosen (1966) note spawning from April – October. In Florida, spawning takes place at water temperatures of 21-32 degrees C (Clugston 1966).

     

    Spawning location: Nest spawners; Polyphils; this nesting species is not particular in choice of substrates and may spawn over gravel, sand, clay, or detrital nests (Simon 1999). Nests usually placed in area free of plants and with a sand or gravel bottom. Males prepare nest by sweeping away silt and sand with tail so that coarser substrata (gravels) are exposed (Avila 1976); coarser particles provide interstitial spaces for the yolk-sac larvae and may function as a protective shelter (Ross 2001).

     

    Reproductive strategy: Guarders (Simon 1999). Lepomis microchirus nest in colonies of 9 to 15 (Breder and Rosen 1966). Spawning males were more aggressive than non-spawning males, often leaving the nest, which provided opportunities for other males to enter nest and engage female. In contrast to some sunfishes, males feed while defending their territory. Simultaneous polygamous spawning is natural, but rarely occurs (Avila 1976). In Florida, Clugston (1966) noted community spawning, with nests located very close together at depths of 457-914 mm. Males court females by rushing out toward them, then returning rapidly to the nest, producing a series of distinctive grunts during this display. Males may be attracted to areas of spawning by odor (Gerald 1971). Additional mating tactics have been described by Dominey (1980; 1981) and Gross (1982).

     

    Fecundity: Fertilized eggs average 1.09-1.40 mm in diameter (Merriman 1971). In Texas, females spawned an average of 5 times a year, with a 120 mm female spwning about 80,000 eggs a year (Estes (1949). Ulrey et al. (1938) reported females 2 years of age produced more than 3800 eggs; those at 4 years, more than 19,000. In Deep Lake, Michigan, this species produced an average of nearly 18,000 fry per nest (Carbine 1939).

     

    Age at maturation: Generally spawns first at one year of age, but as early as four months of age under favorable conditions (Swingle and Smith 1943).

     

    Migration:

     

    Longevity: Applegate et al. (1967) reported that fish do not live much beyond their fifth year. The oldest age reported from scale reading was year 11; life span apparently greater in the northern U.S. (Carlander 1977).

     

    Food habits: Generalized wide spectrum feeder; actively feeding during daylight hours, with a minor feeding peak in the morning and a major peak in the evening (Carlander 1977; Sarker 1977). Feeding location determined by balance between abundance of food source and risk of exposure to predators; L. microchirus feeds in open water or vegetation, choosing the area that provides the greatest energy return, as relative abundances of zooplankton and aquatic insects associated with plants vary (Mittelbach 1981). Mittelbach (1984) demonstrated that individuals undergo pronounced shifts in both habitat and food items as they grow due to changes in vulnerability to predation. Competition between size classes is generally avoided as younger fish utilize areas with cover while older fish seek more open water (Bianchi 1984; Mittelbach 1984). Selection of foraging area is also affected by water temperatures, with fish preferring a temperature of 30 degrees C (Wildhaber and Hall 1988). Larvae and juveniles of 5-10 mm in length frequently ingest Cladocerans and copepod nauplii (Werner 1969; Beard 1982). Individuals reaching 20 mm have varied feeding habits, primarily consuming Cladocera (Chydorinae) and adult copepods and insects (mainly chironomids; Beard 1982). The primary diet of adults in various water bodies is comprised of aquatic insects, crayfish, and small fish, although zooplankton serves as the main food item in other bodies of water (Mittelbach 1984; Carlander 1977). This species also ingests aquatic vegetation including algae (Carlander 1977; Sublette et al. 1990).  Based on the following data, Goldstein and Simon (1999) list first and second level trophic classifications as invertivore and drift; trophic mode listed as water column/surface: In Canada, populations primarily consumed insects, crustaceans, and plant material, with 50% of food volume consisting of chironomid larvae (Keast and Webb 1966); in late summer, when insects were not as abundant, 22% of diet was plant material (Moffett and Hunt 1943; Goldstein and Simon 1999). The fish louse, Argulus, has been found in bluegill stomachs, suggesting individuals may perform “cleaning” function on infected fish (Carlander 1977).

     

    Growth: In the southeast, individuals reach 48.3-88.9 mm TL, 83.8-132.1 mm TL, 101.6-160.0 mm TL, 121.9-182.9 mm TL, and 150.0-188.0 mm TL after years 1-5, respectively (Applegate et al. 1967). A study of L. macrochirus populations in Lakes Nasworthy and Bastrop, Texas, indicated that early growth of individuals was above average when compared to populations in other lakes in the more northern part of the U.S., but relative size decreased at later annuli, this may have resulted from warm temperatures. Females grew faster than males in both lakes (Serns and Strawn 1975). Growth rates are highest at summer water temperatures of 30-31°C (Beitinger and Magnuson 1979).

     

    Phylogeny and morphologically similar fishes

    Lepomis macrochirus most similar to Lepomis humilis (orangespotted sunfish; Branson et al. 1962) and Lepomis microlophus (redear sunfish), but differs from these species in having a distinct spot at the base of the soft dorsal fin; it differs also from the L. microlophus in having long and slender gill rakers and from L. humilis in lacking the elongate sensory pores on the preopercle margin (Ross 2001). Species hybridizes with Lepomis auritus, L. cyanellus, L. gibosus, L. gulosus, L. humilis, L. megalotis, L. microlophus, L. punctatus; artificial hybrids with Pomoxis annularis and P. nigromaculatus (Carlander 1977).

     

    Host Records

    L. macrochirus host to Gyrodactylus goerani, G. macrochiri (Hoffman et al 1964; Rawson et al 1973; Harris et al 2004), Dactylogyrus aureus (Mizelle and McDougal 1970), Posthodiplostomum minimum (Lewis and Nickum 1964; Meade and Bedinger 1967), Tricodina (Carlander 1977), Eocollis arcanus (Acanthocephalan; Meade and Harvey 1968).

     

    Commercial or Environmental Importance

    Parasite fauna of this species well known in Texas and may be utilized to monitor historical and present day health of watershed ecosystems (Bhuthimethee et al. 2005). Species has commonly been used for research in aquatic biology and ecotoxicology (Touart 1988). Pound for pound, this species is one of the best fighting and best tasting fishes (Ross 2001). Seasonal hooking mortality rates were estimated for Lepomis macrochirus caught in Choke Canyon and Cedar Lake reservoirs, in Texas. Results showed mortality to be significantly higher in summer than in winter, which in addition to high fishing pressure, high exploitation, and high catch-and-release rates, may significantly affect L. macrochirus populations (Coble 1988; Muoneke 1992). Species is important in pond management (Carlander 1977). Species impact as predators of crustaceans and insects is most impressive, as a population may eat six times its own weight during a single summer (Gerking 1962).

     

    [Additional literature noting collection of this species from Texas locations includes, but is not limited to the following: Bonham (1946); lower Rio Grande (Robinson 1959; Edwards and Contreras-Balderas 1991); Neches and Trinity Rivers (Avise and Smith 1974); Devil’s River (Harrell 1978); upper San Marcos River (Hays Co.; Underwood and Dronen 1984); Dolman (1990); Sister Grove Creek (Meador and Matthews 1992); Pecos River (Rhodes and Hubbs 1992); Dumont and Dennis (1997).]

     

    References

    Applegate, R. L., J. W. Mullan and D. I. Morais. 1967. Food and growth of six centrarchids from shoreline areas of Bull Shoals Reservoir. Proc. S. E. Assoc. Game Fish Comm. 20:469-482.

    Avila, V. L. 1976. A field study of nesting behavior of male bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque). American Midland Naturalist 96(1):195-206.

    Avise, J.C. and M.H. Smith. 1974. Biochemical genetics of sunfish. I. Geographic variation and subspecific intergradation in the bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus. Evolution 28(1):42-56.

    Beard, T.D. 1982. Population dynamics of young-of-year bluegill. Tech. Bull. No. 127. Wisconsin Dept. Nat. Resources, Madison. 32 pp.

    Bhuthimethee, M., N. O. Dronen, Jr., and W. H. Neill. 2005. Metazoan parasite communities of sentinel bluegill caged in two urbanizing streams, San Antonio, Texas. J. Parasitology 91(6):1358-1367.

    Bonham, K. 1946. Management of a small fish pond in Texas. Journal of Wildlife Management 10(1):1-4.

    Branson, B. A., and G. A. Moore. 1962. The Lateralis Components of the Acoustico-Lateralis System in the Sunfish Family Centrarchidae. Copeia 1962(1):1-108.

    Breder, C. M., Jr., and D. Eric Rosen. 1966.Carlander, Kenneth D. 1977. Handbook of Freshwater Fishery Biology. The Iowa State University Press, Ames 2:431.

    Carbine, W. F. 1939. Observations on the spawning habits of centrarchid fishes in Deep Lake, Oakland County, Michigan. Trans. N. Amer. Wildl. Conf. 4:275-287.

    Clugston, J.P. 1966. Centrarchid spawning in the Florida Everglades. Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 29(2):137-144.

    Coble, D.W. 1988. Effects of angling on bluegill populations: management implications. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 8(3):277-283.

    Dolman, W.B. 1990. Classification of Texas reservoirs in relation to limnology and fish community associations. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 119:511-520.

    Dominey, W.J. 1980. Female mimicry in male bluegill sufish – a genetic polymorphism? Nature 284(5756):546-548.

    Dominey, W.J. 1981. Maintenance of female mimicry as a reproductive strategy in blugill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). Environmental Biol. Fish. 6(1):59-64.

    Dumont, S.C. and J.A. Dennis. 1997. Comparison of day and night electrofishing in Texas reservoirs. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 17:939-946.

    Edwards, R.J., and S. Contreras-Balderas. 1991. Historical changes in the ichthyofauna of the lower Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte), Texas and Mexico. The Southwestern Naturalist 36(2):201-212.

    Estes, C.M. 1949. The fecundity of the bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) in certain small east Texas reservoirs. M.S. Thesis. North Texas State College. 39 pp.

    Forbes, S. A. 1884. A catalogue of the native fishes of Illinois. Report of the Illinois State Fish Commissioner for 1884:60-89

    Forbes, S. A. and R. E. Richardson. 1908. The Fishes of Illinois. Illinois State Laboratory of  Natural History cxxxi + 357 pp. + separate atlas containing 102 maps.

    Gerald, J.W. 1971. Sound production during courtship in six species of sunfish (Centrarchidae). Evolution 25(1):75-87.

    Gerking, S.D. 1962. Production and food utilization in a population of bluegill sunfish. Ecol. Monogr. 32(1):31-78.

    Goldstein, R.M., and T.P. Simon. 1999. Toward a united definition of guild structure for feeding ecology of North American freshwater fishes. pp. 123-202 in T.P. Simon, editor. Assessing the sustainability and biological integrity of water resources using fish communities. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

    Gross, M.R. 1982. Sneakers, satellites and parentals: polymorphic mating strategies in North American sunfishes. Z. Tierpsychol. 50:1-26.

    Harrell, H.L. 1978. Response of the Devil’s River (Texas) fish community to flooding. Copeia 1978(1):60-68.

    Harris, P. D., A. P. Shinn, J. Cable, T. A. Bakke. 2004. Nominal species of the genus Gyrodactylus von Nordmann 1832 (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae), with a list of principle host species. Systematic Parasitology 59:1-27.

    Hoffman, G. L., and R. E. Putz. 1964. Studies on Gyrodatylus macrochiri n. sp. (Trematoda: Monogenea) from Lepomis macrochirus. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society 31(1):76-82.

    Hubbs, C., R. J. Edwards and G. P. Garrett. 1991. An annotated checklist of freshwater fishes of Texas, with key to identification of species. Texas Journal of Science, Supplement 43(4):1-56.

    Jordan, D. S. 1878. A Catalogue of Fishes of Oklahoma. Bulletin of the Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History 1(2):37-70.

    Keast, A., and D. Webb. 1966. Mouth and body form relative to feeding ecology in the fish fauna of a small lake, Lake Opinicon, Ontario. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 23(12):1845-1874.

    Large, T. 1903. A list of the native fishes of Illinois with keys. Appendix to Report of the State Board of Fish Commissioners for Sept. 30, 1900 to Oct. 1, 1902. 30 pp.

    Lee, D. S. 1980. Lepomis macrochirus (Rafinesque 1819), Bluegill. pp. 597 in D. S. Lee, et al. Atlas of North American Freshwater Fishes. N. C. State Mus. Nat. Hist., Raleigh, i-r+854 pp.

    Lewis, W. M. and J. Nickum. 1964. The effect of Pothodiplostomum minimum upon the body weight of the bluegill. Prog. Fish-Cult. 26(3):121-3.

    Matthews, W.J., M.S. Schorrs, and M.R. Meador. 1996. Effects of experimentally enhanced flows on fishes of a small Texas (U.S.A.) stream: assessing the impact of interbasin transfer. Freshwater Biology 35:349-362.

    McComish, T.S. 1968. Sexual differentiation of bluegills by the urogenital opening. Prog. Fish-Cult. 63:28.

    Meade, T.G. and C.A. Bedinger, Jr. 1967. Posthodiplostomum minimum (Trematoda: Diplostomidae) in fishes of Madison County, eastern Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist 12(3):334-335.

    Meade, T.G. and J.S. Harvey, Jr. 1968. New record numbers and sites of infection in fishes by the Acanthocephalan, Eocollis arcanus Van Cleave. The Journal of Parasitology 54(2):371.

    Meador, M.R., and W.J. Matthews. 1992. Spatial and Temporal patterns in fish assemblage structure of an intermittent Texas stream. American Midland Naturalist 127(1):106-114.

    Merriner, J.V. 1971. Egg size as a factor in intergenetic hybrid success of centrarchids. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 100(1):29-32.

    Mittelbach, G.G. 1981. Foraging efficiency and body size: a study of optimal diet and habitat use by bluegills. Ecology 62(5):1370-1386.

    Mittelbach, G.G. 1984. Predation and resource partitioning in two sunfishes (Centrarchidae). Ecology 65(2):499-513.

    Mizelle, J. D. and H. D. McDougal. 1970. “Studies on Monogenetic Trematodes. XLV. The genus Dactylogyrus in North America. Key to species, host-parasite and parasite host lists, localities, emendations, and description of D. Kritskyi sp. n.” American Midland Naturalist 84(2):444-462.

    Moffett, J.W., and B.P. Hunt. 1943. Winter feeding habits of bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque, and yellow perch, Perca flavens (Mitchell), in Cedar Lake, Washtenaw County, Michigan. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 73(1943):231-242.

    Muoneke, M.I. 1992. Seasonal hooking mortality of bluegills caught on natural baits. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 12:645-649.

    Nelson, E. W. 1876. A partial catalogue of the fishes of Illinois. Illinois Museum of Natural History Bulletin 1(1):33-52.

    Peterson, M.S. and S.T. Ross. 1991. Dynamics of littoral fishes and decapods along a coastal river gradient. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 33:467-483.

    Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The Fishes of Missouri. The Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City. 343 pp.

    Rafinesque, C. S. 1819. Prodrome de 70 nouveaux genres d'animaux découverts dans l'intérieur des Etats-Unis d'Amérique, durant l'année 1818. J. de Physique de Chimie et D'Histoire Naturelle 88:417-429.

    Rawson, Mac V. and Wilmer A. Rogers. 1973. Seasonal abundance of Gyrodactylus macrochiri Hoffman and Putz, 1964 on Bluegill and Largemouth Bass. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 9:174-177.

    Rhodes, K. and C. Hubbs. 1992. Recovery of Pecos River fishes from a Red Tide fish kill. The Southwestern Naturalist 37(2):178-187.

    Riggs, C.D. and E.W. Bonn. 1959. An annotated list of the fishes of Lake Texoma, Oklahoma and Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist 4(4):157-168.

    Robinson, D.T. 1959. The ichthyofauna of the lower Rio Grande, Texas and Mexico. Copeia 1959(3):253-256.

    Rose, D.R. and A.A. Echelle. 1981. Factor analysis of associations of fishes in Little River, central Texas, with an interdrainage comparison. American Midland Naturalist 106(2):379-391.

    Ross, S. T. 2001. The Inland Fishes of Mississippi. University Press of Mississippi, Jackson. 624 pp.

    Sarker, A.L. 1977. Feeding ecology of the bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus, in two heated reservoirs of Texas. III. Time of day and patterns of feeding. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 106(6):596-601.

    Schloemer, C. L. 1947. Reproductive cycles of five species of Texas Centrarchids. Science 106(2743):85-86

    Simon, T. P. 1999. Assessment of Balon’s reproductive guilds with application to Midwestern North American Freshwater Fishes, pp. 97-121. In: Simon, T.L. (ed.). Assessing the sustainability and biological integrity of water resources using fish communities. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida. 671 pp.

    Smith, P. Wayne. 1965. A preliminary annotated list of the lampreys and fishes of Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Biological Notes 54. 12 pp.

    Smith, P. Wayne. 1979. The Fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Chicago. 314pp.

    Sublette, J. E., M. D. Hatch, and M. Sublette. 1990. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. 393 pp.

    Swingle, H. S. and E. V. Smith. 1943. Factors affecting the reproduction of bluegill bream and large black bass in ponds. Ala. Poly-Tech. Inst. Agr. Exp. Stn. Circ. 87:8.

    Touart, L. W. 1988. Hazard Evaluation Division, technical guidance document: Aquatic mesocosm tests to support pesticide registrations, EPA-540/09-88-035, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Program, Ecological Effects Branch, Washington, D.C., 41p.

    Ulrey, L. C. Risk, and W. Scott. 1938. The number of eggs produced by some of our common freshwater fishes. Invest. Ind. Lakes, Streams 1(6):73-78.

    Underwood, H.T., and N.O. Dronen, Jr. 1984. Endohelminths of fishes from the Upper San Marcos River, Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist 29(4):377-385.

     

    Warren, L. W., Jr., B. M. Burr, S. J. Walsh, H. L. Bart, Jr., R. C. Cashner, D. A. Etnier, B. J. Freeman, B. R. Kuhajda, R. L. Mayden, H. W. Robison, S. T. Ross, and W. C. Starnes. 2000. Diversity, Distribution, and Conservation status of the native freshwater fishes of the southern United States. Fisheries 25(10):7-29.

     

    Werner, R.G. 1969. Ecology of limnetic bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) fry in Crane Lake, Indiana. American Midland Naturalist 81:164-181.

     

    Wildhaber, M.L. and W.H. Neill. 1992. Activity and distribution of northern and Florida largemouth bass in a Texas impoundment. J. Freshwater Ecology 7(3):293-302.

    Zeug, S. C., Kirk O. Winemiller, and S. Tarim. 2005. Response of Brazos River Oxbow Fishes to Patterns of Hydrologic Connectivity and Environmental Variability. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 134:1389-1399.

     

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    Credit: Joseph Tomelleri Credit: Chad Thomas, Texas State University Credit: Chad Thomas, Texas State University Credit: Fishes of Texas Project Credit: Garold Sneegas Credit: Garold Sneegas Credit: Joseph Tomelleri Credit: Joseph Tomelleri